Unofficial Debian Mini-Howto
  Version: draft 1.1 (first version)

Join the revolution!

  Pablo Hoertner (pablo at slp dot at)

  Sunday, 2002/08/17, 18:24 UTC
  Vienna, Austria (Europe)


      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
      document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
      Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
      Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts,
      and with no Back-Cover Texts.
      A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
      "GNU Free Documentation License".

  WARNING: This HOWTO is incomplete. I expect to add to it in (more or
  less) regular intervals until it is complete.


  This is the unofficial Debian GNU/Linux Configuration Mini-Howto in
  its version of Sunday, 2002/08/17, 18:24 UTC. It is available from

  Table of Contents

  1. Introduction

     1.1 What is Debian GNU/Linux?
     1.2 Where to get it?
     1.3 On which computer plattforms does it run?

  2. Installation

     2.1 How to install Debian GNU/Linux?
     2.2 Pre-installation configuration
     2.3 Get it from the internet

  3. Configuration

     3.1 Post-installation configuration
     3.2 Where are the configuration files?

  4. Upgrade

     4.1 Obtaining a stable version of Debian
     4.2 Obtaining a beta version of Debian

  5. Graphical User Interface

  7. Applications

     7.1 Internet
     7.2 Multimedia
     7.3 Utilities
     7.4 Office

  8. How to...?

  9. GNU Free Documentation License

10. GNU General Public Licence


12. Terms of distribution


  1.  Introduction

  Note: You may offhand jump over this section and continue with the next
  point, if you like. Hopefully, you get the solicitated infos there.

  For those who aren't in a hurry with setting up their system I will try
  to explain in the following what this is and what it is for.

  First, I have to warn you. This is not a real Howto. It was written for
  the 'impatients', who might be interested in all the information
  provided in most Howtos but on the other hand want to have a working
  system as soon as possible ...

  For a different purpose the Linux Documentation Project might be your
  friend! You can also find non-Linux related stuff over there.
  Just go to:

  Be aware: this paper might just apear to you as one more useless
  information about 'How I did install my prefered OS', as there might be
  many on the internet. For me, there were not enough of them - or at
  least they were quite hidden or too long.

  As I have been seeking for such an information quite long and could
  only find some stuff on the different newsgroups and mailing lists, I
  decided to write this document for all the folks out there having
  similar aims.

  My main task was to build a stable and free system (therefore Debian)
  wich is highly customisable and acts like I'm used to from this other
  operating system. (Yes, I mean M$ Windoze, which again has copied a lot
  for its GUI from the Mac OS ...) Beside all that, Dabian has lots of
  other great features, such as security and velocitiy (even on very old
  systems as is mine)!

  Nevertheless, I also want to use this Mini-Howto to introduce you to
  the free software community and the world of GNU/Linux, in the
  suspection that it might be read by absolute Linux or Debian 'newbies'
  and that by reading this (and putting it into practice) you will all
  become at least so enthusiastic about GNU/Linux as I am.

  If you are a Linux 'freak' already, you might read this document and
  help out with more tipps. Everyone is invited to do that, of course.

  Beside that you can help me with ideas on how to take advantage of the
  big - and continously growing - public interest in GNU/Linux regarding
  the non-ending struggle to change this society and to challenge
  capitalism as a whole; its oppression, its wars, its propaganda on
  'freedom' and the 'free market'. Let's revolutionize the real world not
  just the 'virtual' one! Any mail (except spam and insults) is welcomed.

  A brief description of Debian GNU/Linux can be found in the
  following section. For further information on Debian see:
  Most of the information provided below is directly taken from their
  website (quoted) and is licenced under the Open Publication Licence.

  However, I prefer consistent copyleft instead of copyright! Hence, this
  Howto is published under the GNU Free Documentation Licence (FDL) and
  as such subject to the terms of the GNU General Public Licence (GPL) -
  which indead was originally meant for use with 'executables' (software)
  only. Interested in this topic? Here you go:

  1.1.  What is Debian?

  Debian is a free operating system (OS) for your computer. An operating
  system is the set of basic programs and utilities that make your
  computer run. Debian uses the Linux kernel (the core of an operating
  system), but most of the basic OS tools come from the GNU project;
  hence the name GNU/Linux.

  Debian GNU/Linux provides more than a pure OS: it comes with more than
  8710 packages, precompiled software bundled up in a nice format for
  easy installation on your machine.

  1.2 Where to get it?

  As with most GPL'd software there are several ways to get the lastest
  release of the Debian GNU/Linux operating system. If you have a cable
  modem, LAN or any other kind of permanent internet connection you might
  want just to install it directly through the internet. Of course, it's
  always good to have a CD just in case, but as the development advances
  pretty much every day it might be 'old' after a month already. An
  ISO-image to burn your own CD can be obtained on their website or one
  of the numerous mirrors. Finally, you can buy a set of CDs. :-)

  1.3 On which computer plattforms does it run?

  Personally, I use an IBM Personal Computer with an intel Pentium II
  processor (200 MHz). Most of you reading this little help will propably
  use an AT-compatible PC as well, ie. the Intel x86 series of machines,
  from the 386 up.

  However, efforts have been made to port the Linux kernel to 286 and
  earlier machines, as well as to other plattforms. Debian supports all
  IA-32 processors, made by Intel, AMD, Cyrix and other manufacturers.
  As Debian's website adjusts from the traditional i386-centric view of
  Linux to a more balanced one, any i386 specific information will be
  moved here (ie. on their website; author's note).

  At the time of writing, the following plattforms are supported or in
  development (mail me for completions or corrections):

  Motorola 68k (``m68k'')
  Sun SPARC (``sparc'')
  Alpha (``alpha'')
  Motorola/IBM PowerPC (``powerpc'')
  ARM (``arm'')
  MIPS CPUs (``mips'' and ``mipsel'')
  HP PA-RISC (``hppa'')
  IA-64 (``ia64'')
  S/390 (``s390'')
  Sun UltraSPARC (``sparc64'')
  SuperH (``sh'')

  There are also non-Linux ports, this means that the operating system
  kernel is different to the Linux kernel, maintained by Linus Torvalds.
  On there is more information on the ports
  to Debian GNU/Linux.

  Non-Linux ports are:

  Debian GNU/Hurd (``hurd-i386'')
  Debian GNU/NetBSD (``netbsd-i386'' and ``netbsd-alpha'')
  Debian GNU/FreeBSD (``freebsd-i386'')

  Finally, Debian Beowulf is a port-like project that aims to run Beowulf
  clusters on Debian machines.

  2. Installation

  2.1 How to install Debian GNU/Linux?

  Use a bootable installation-CD, press Enter and follow the text ...
  Okay, that's the very short version! ;-)
  But in fact I believe that all the claims, saying that Debian was a
  difficult to install system is humbug. It probably won't detect all your
  hardware immedately, but that's all.

  In my oppinion, the installation procedure is quite easy, explainig to
  the user everything that is happening to your system. If you are
  courious, you can press Ctrl-F3 and Ctrl-F4 to see what is happening.
  To return to the installation interface press Ctrl-F1. With Ctrl-F2 you
  have a so-called console where you can type in commands (as far as you
  are already familiar with 'bash' - the bourne shell).

  After installing the base of the Debian GNU/Linux OS, you have to go
  through the pre-install Debian System Configuration. This procedure
  can be repeated whenever you like by just running
  /usr/sbin/base-config. However, this is not recomended as you won't
  like to configure again your whole system once it is working.

  2.2 Pre-installation configuration

  It includes the following options. Below every configuration option you
  will find the answer I gave. Useless to say that not everyone might
  live in Vienna and not everyone of you is using a PS/2-mouse and so
  forth, so please read the questions carefully.

  * Time Zone Configuration (1)
    Yes to GMT (UTC)
  * Time Zone Configuration (2)
  * Time Zone Configuration (3)
  * Password setup (1)
    Yes to md5 passwords
  * Password setup (2)
    Yes to shadow passwords
  * Password setup (3)
    set root password
  * Password setup (4)
    Yes to user account
  * Password setup (5)
    enter username
  * Password setup (6)
    full username
  * Password setup (7)
    set user password

  2.3 Get it from the internet
  The following two questions are important for you to get the software
  that will be installed to your system. A PPP-conection is necessary if
  you use a normal modem (through the phone). Otherwise say 'no' to this
  question. Apt is the tool that helps you getting the software - no
  matter whether you want to download it or use a CD.

  * PPP Configuration
    No to PPP
  * Apt Configuration
    edit sources list by hand

  Of course, you can also go through the whole configuration procedure.
  It won't deprive too much of your valuable time from you. Or you can
  make an /etc/sources.list by modifing an old one. Eg. you could just
  mount your primary GNU/Linux system or get it from the Internet.

  Maybe your network-card hasn't yet been recognized and configured.
  Before trying to do it by hand you should try to let the installer do
  it for you. Go down to the network-configuration option and provide the
  solicitated information. If everything works fine you can skip this!

  To configure my internet connection I had to login on another terminal
  (by pressing Ctrl-F2 and Enter) to load the module for my NIC
  (ethernet-card). But first do 'ping -c 3'
  If you can send 3 packages to Google, your internet-connection is

  If not: does 'ifconfig eth0' give you an information similar (in terms
  of lengths etc.) to that of 'ifconfig lo'? If you get an error for the
  first, you may have to load your module. Do you have more than one
  NIC's in your PC? Or is it a tokenring-card or something similar?

  There are proper howtos on those issues and I don't want to annoy the
  others. If you find no information mail to a Linux-list or post on a
  news-group. The same goes to other 'pecularities'.

  That the kernel (and the OS in general) can talk to the devices in your
  PC the necessary information has to be built directly into the kernel
  or loaded as a module (automatically or by hand) wich makes your system
  more flexible and uses less memory. Thus, we must load the NIC-module
  by hand if it's not recognized by the operating system. Maybe it is
  necessary to get the driver elsewhere. For example, the Debian team
  provides different driver disks with modules for 'not so common'

  So, let's load the driver for our network-device. I have a 3Com-card
  and my required module is called 3c95x. You may load it by typing
  'modprobe 3c95x'. If this fails you have to know where the module
  resides and use 'insmod' instead of 'modprobe'. My kernel (the one wich
  comes with the installation-disk/CD) is version 2.2.19 - thus, for me
  this is: insmod /lib/module/2.2.19/net/3c95x.o

  Then you have to do the following:
  'ifconfig eth0 up add {your IP-address, eg.}'
  Now ping again (see above) and try the this if it fails:

  Note: This works only if you are connected to a cable modem or to a LAN
  using DHCP. Otherwise contact your sysadmin - or read a book! ;-)

  I hope that we can now continue tweaking Debian. :-)

  3. Configuration

  3.1 Post-installation configuration

  All right, after this 'short' excursion the installer will ask you,
  whether you like to get new software. With tasksel, you get a kind
  of software-package (or rather a set of packages), just like
  'desktop', 'administration' etc.
  * Install Software (1)
    No to tasksel
  * Install Software (2)
    No to dselect

  Here I got an error message when I first installed the system with my
  personal tweaked /etc/apt/sources.list:

  E: Internal Error, problem resolver broke stuff

  This was because I used a Woody-CD and the sources.lists pointed to the
  Debian Sid release. This prevented me from getting more stuff that I
  won't really need... However, it broke the system totally and I had to
  install again. Next, you might want to do 'apt-get dist-upgrade'!)

  But first, let's continue with setting up the system.

  * Install Software (3)
    No to retry
  * Mail System Configuration
    (5) No configuration

  Configuration finished!

  Now, we have to reboot and hope, that everything worked fine! :-)
  We are now going to upgrade the system, but first I want to go deeper
  into the problem I faced.

  'df -h' tells me, that we now have 151 MB installed. With the command
  'dpkg -l > packages' you can list the installed packages and save them
  directly into the file 'packages'.

  Finally, install package by package! It may happen that there are too
  many conflicts. As this happened to me I just added some lines for the
  Woody release to my sources.list file.

  Removing package after package should solve the problem, I hoped. Of
  course, you will always have to later install a newer version manually,
  if the system doesn't automatically. So, please write down all the
  changes you do!

  WARNING: The following *did not* work. Neither worked
  dpkg --ignore-depends=<...> --force-remove-essential -r <pkg>
  Their always remained an unresolve dependency I couldn't manage!

  apt-get remove cpio
  apt-get remove update
  apt-get remove textutils
  init 1
  apt-get remove exim
  apt-get remove ppp
  apt-get remove cron
  apt-get remove passwd
  apt-get remove lisasl7
  apt-get remove libpam-modules
  apt-get remove login
  dkpg --remove libpam0g
  apt-get remove bash

  3.2 Where are the configuration files?

  As you now have a working GNU/Linux operating system (without the GUI -
  the Graphical User Interface, called X system under Unix/GNU) you may
  want to edit the configuration files by hand instead of running the
  semi-graphical dialogs that are provided by debconf.
  For being able to do so, you, of course, have to know where the
  config-files reside. Don't be afraid, most of them can be found in the
  /etc directory. It stands for 'et cetera' and lodges most of the files
  needed for system-administration.

  User-specific files are most propably found in the /home/<user> or the
  /root directory, ie. ~/ for short. If you have installed 'alien'
  software, this is personally built stuff or (commercial) software from
  a non Debian source, it resides in /usr/local or /opt.

  For more information you would propably do best by visiting their
  website, having a look at the provided documantation in /usr/doc and/or
  studying its manual-/info-site by typing '{man | info} <command>'.

  4. Upgrade

  4.1 Obtaining a stable version of Debian

  Maybe, you have a stable version already. If so, congratulations, you
  can skip this section, if you want. The Debian team and its supporters
  test every release very carefully, so it may take quite a while until
  the next stable release is published. At the moment, stable is Woody.
  The last one was Potato, which is still supported by the Debian Project.
  The names are taken from Pixar's 'Toy Story' movie. You are encoureged
  to help with the development of Debian by becoming a Beta tester. By doing
  so you can work on the testing release (which, of course, can also be
  obtained for free) and report all the bugs (ie. errors in the software).
  Thus, the maintainer of the respective package can try to fix the problem
  and the whole release makes one step closer to a stable version. In fact,
  I have been using the Debian Beta (Woody at that time) for about one year
  and faced no severe problems. The more people test its software the better
  the next Debian GNU/Linux will be - it's up to us, the users!
  My CD is dated by the 12th of August, 2001. As you may expect, I have done
  lots of software updates in this time and there have been many improvements.
  Therefore, the Woody-Version I got on CD was not the same as has been
  released the 19th of July, 2002, of course. Hence, I had to make a
  distribution upgrade after installing the system from my CD.
  This is done by 'apt-get dist-upgrade'. Again, you have to configure some
  stuff. As debconf (the Debian Configurator) is an 'intelligent' system, it
  won't ask you for the same things twice - except changes in the software
  require it (new or reduced features, different configuration method than
  the last package-version etc.). Here's the stuff I've been asked:

  * Configuring Debconf (1)
  * Configuring Debconf (2)
  * Adduser
    No to system wide readable home directories
  * Configuring Setserial
    autosave once
  * Configuring auto-passwd
    Yes to update (mail to /var/mail)
  * Setting up exim
    (5) No configuration
  * Configuring LILO (1)
    partition boot record [No]
  * Configuring LILO (2)
    master boot record [No]
  * Configuring LILO (3)
    activate partition [No]
  * Configuring Console-common (1)
    Select keymap from arch list
  * Configuring Console-common (2)
  * Configuring Console-common (3)
  * Configuring Man-db
    Yes to setuid man
  * Configuring Console-data (1)
  * Setting up PPP (1)
    update /etc/ppp/options.ttyXX [Y]
  * Setting up PPP (2)
    update /etc/ppp/ppp_on_boot.dsl [Y]

  Well, the configuration of Woody is finished again. If you want to upgrade
  to the Debian Beta it is recomended that you continue immediately before
  doing some changes manually as things might be different with the new
  release. This is not a warning, just an advice. ;-)

  4.2 Obtaining a beta version of Debian

  As already described aboved, you would do a good job by upgrading to
  the Beta of Debian GNU/Linux. There is no risk by doing that and
  thus make your contribution to the free software movement. Besides,
  you get a share; the beta software often has features, that the
  officially released doesn't.
  Software that hasn't yet been tested at all or still seems to be
  quite buggy resides in unstable (ie. similar to alpha). Some say that
  beta to Debian is what Service Pack 2 is to Micro$oft and that unstable
  means what they would call 'stable'. If you (as myself) did this bold
  step of using Mr. Bill Gates' so called 'operating' system in the past,
  it will be just a small step switching from Debian stable to Debian
  Testing Distribution:
  "This area contains packages that are intended to become part of the
  next stable distribution. There are strict criteria a package in unstable
  (see below) must obey before it can be added to testing."
  Unstable Distribution:
  "This area contains the most recent packages in Debian. Once a package
  has met our criterion for stability and quality of packaging, it will be included
  in testing." (see

  'df -h' tells me that we now have 131 MB of software installed.
  With the command 'dpkg -l > packages' again we can list the
  actually installed (or upgraded) packages and save them (ie.
  the output) directly into the file 'packages' (just call it as
  you want).
  Finally, I make another dist-upgrade - this time from Woody to
  Sid (ie. testing at the time of writing this paper). And again
  the Debian Configurator will appear after unpacking the software

  * Configuring Man-db
    Yes to database rebuild (6861)
  * Configuring LILO (1)
    partition boot record [No]
  * Configuring LILO (2)
    master boot record [No]
  * Configuring LILO (3)

   This time, configuration has been finished sooner. Now we can
   concentrate on installing the rest. The essential packages
   are finally obtained and everything is well configured.

  5. Graphical User Interface

  Graphical User Interface or GUI I'll call what M$ calls 'Windows'
  for its propietary (ie. closed and commercial) system. Actually,
  the operating system it uses is 'good old' DOS. This at least goes
  to the 3.x and 9x/ME series. But also the NT/XP kernel might be
  used without GUI - it just is that buggy that no one will hack it
  to try, I guess.
  Now, the Unix/GNU operating system (GNU, which stands for 'GNU's not
  Unix', is just a derivate from the existing propietary Unices)
  originally did fine without any windows, dialogs and menus. First the
  X Window System brought the colours to Unix/GNU. It's free derivate is
  provided by the X Group and called XFree86.
  The version of X actually used by Debian GNU/Linux is 11 release 6,
  therefore the designation X11R6. The programme which controls the
  behaviour of your graphical dialogs, buttons etc. is called the
  window manager. The desktop icons are provided by several file
  managers, in my case by DFM - the Desktop File Manager.
  There are also some advanced window managers whith integrated desktop
  and enhanced funcionality (applets, administration-tools etc.). They
  are called Desktop Environments; the two most known are KDE and GNOME.

  Personally, I prefer the Ice WindowManager. IceWM is fast, easy to
  configure, and it acts much like I am used. Beside that, there is a
  good interoperability with the GNOME-software and it does not interfere
  with KDE-software, as is the case with some other wm's.
  To install it, you just need to type 'apt-get install <package>'. This
  will download the package (or fetch it from CD) and forward it to dpkg -
  the Debian Package Manager, which will install and configure it.
  'apt-get install icewm-experimental' does the job for you. It will also
  install all other packages needed by IceWM to work. With 'apt-cache
  show <package>' you will get information on the software. 'apt-cache
  pkgnames icewm' will show you all the available software-packages
  beginnig with 'icewm'.

  'apt-get install icepref' gives you the software needed to configure
  the IceWM-Prefences menu through a graphical interface. For the 'Start
  Menu' use 'apt-get install iceme' & 'apt-get install icemc'. And
  'apt-get install dfm' installs - the name says it all - DFM.
  'apt-get install menu' provides update-menus functions for some
  applications. (Quote from 'apt-cache show menu').

  To login we need a display manager. It asks you for your username and
  password, just as the login-prompt does, but not only. Further more it
  gives you the possibility to chose your window manager (if several are
  installed) as well as your language, allows you to shut down or reboot
  and so on. My favorite is KDM; however, you might prefer GDM (GNOME),
  XDM (the 'classic'), WDM or others. You may also do without.
  'apt-get install kdm' downloaded what I needed and configured the
  system to my purpose. After that, the X-Server has to be installed
  and configured. It allows the X-Client (ie. the actual GUI) to
  access the graphics device (the VGA-card), give the input devices
  like the mouse and the keyboard access to it and control the display
  resolution and colour depth etc.

  After typing 'apt-get install xserver-s3' and confirming with 'Y' you
  will go through an adventurous series of options. Again, my answers
  maybe don't apply to your individual system. Keep this in mind!

  * Configuring Xserver-common
    Yes to debconf /etc/X11/Xwrapper.config
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (1)
    Yes to debconf /etc/X11/XF86Config
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (2)
    XKB rule set 'xfree86'
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (3)
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (4)
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (5)
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (6)
    [left blank]
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (7)
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (8)
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (9)
    No to LCD monitor
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (10)
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (11)
    Up to 14 inches (355 mm)
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (12)
    800x600, 640x480
  * Configuring Xserver-s3 (13)
    16 bpp

  Without installed fonts you won't see much. As we use different
  language/character settings (en/de, iso-8859-{1|15}), we should
  install the transcoded version with 100 dpi (dots per inch).
  Type 'apt-get install xfonts-100dpi-transcoded' first and then
  'apt-get install xfs-xtt', the TrueType X-Font-Server. Now,
  'apt-get install xfonts-base' is needed. This provides the 'fixed'
  font which is the default for most applications. For your proper
  language you'll do 'apt-get install locales'.

  * Configuring locales (1)
  * Configuring locales (2)

  And 'apt-get install localeconf' gives you the ability to configure
  your locales with debconf. (You need to answer 'Yes'.)

  Need more? Try the following or explore the packages by yourself.

  Free TrueType Font Engine:
  apt-get install freetype2

  Shareware font selection for X11:
  apt-get install sharefont

  Bitstream FontTastic font server for Corel Wine:
  apt-get install fonttastic-glibc-2.1

  100 dpi fonts for X:
  apt-get install xfonts-100dpi

  International fonts for X -- European:
  apt-get install xfonts-intl-european

  Scalable fonts for X:
  apt-get install xfonts-scalable

  6. Graphical Administration Interface

  One thing Debian is lacking in my oppinion is an administration tool
  similar to those provided by other distributions. Therefore, I
  installed some packages from commercial Debian GNU/Linux distros,
  as they are orientated more towards beginners and people who are
  willing to pay for more comfortability.
  'apt-get install adminmenu' installs the Libranet Adminmenu which
  provides the Red Hat Linux hardware probing tool Kudzu and its
  Hardware Discovery Utility. The following option must be configured.

  * Configuring Discover
    manage /dev/cdrom*

  To get those tools you have to add the following line to your
  /etc/apt/sources.list file:

  # Libranet
  deb updates-2.0/

  Another admin-tool is provided by Ximian, the former maintainer of
  GNOME Helix and commercial counterpart of the GNOME Project. Unlike
  adminmenu it has no command-line tool (ie. what adminmenu is to
  xadminmenu.) With 'apt-get install ximian-setup-tools' you can get it.

  * Paper Size Configuration

  From Corel Linux (now Xandros) come the corel-netconfig and other tools
  and boot-scripts. Enhance your sources.list file by:

  # CorelLinux
  deb corellinux-1.2 main contrib non-free
  deb corellinux-1.2 corel
  deb corellinux-1.2 corel_updates

  Before installing, you need to configure LILO. Usually, I use Grub on
  my own and therefore didn't want to configure it at the beginning but
  unfortunately Corel's proggies depend on LILO. So please do
  'liloconfig' for compatibility with corel-bootsplash. After this type:

  apt-get install corel-netconfig
  apt-get install corel-pcimap
  apt-get install corel-xsafe
  apt-get install corel-libsetup
  apt-get install corel-boot-utils
  apt-get install corel-xwin-util

  If you want to try the Storm Linux package manager, edit your
  sources.list file again. It is nothing special and just interesting for
  'historical reasons' as Storm unfortunately went bankrupt. Also you
  might install the background images used for their desktop. Again, into
  your /etc/apt/sources.list goes:

  # Progeny's free software archive -- Storm FTP
  deb hail main contrib non-free

  Then type the following two commands and you will be able to smell a
  bit of the flavour of Stormix, the commercial firewall release (called
  Hail) of Debian GNU/Linux.

  apt-get install stormix-backgrounds
  apt-get install stormpkg

  The same goes to Progeny. Indeed, it still exists (above all for
  commercial support to Debian GNU/Linux) but most of its developments
  are part of Woody today. Edit /etc/apt/sources.list and install!

  # Progeny's free software archive -- Progeny FTP
  deb stable main contrib non-free
  # Progeny's free software archive -- Progeny updates FTP
  deb updates/newton/

  Potpourri offers sounds, images, video clips etc. for Progeny Debian.
  And the Progeny Bug Reporting Tool has a pretty comprehensible name, I
  would say.

  apt-get install progeny-potpourri
  apt-get install progeny-bug

  To install the Linux System Configurator, which is avaible for every
  distribution of GNU/Linux, type 'apt-get install systemconfigurator',
  you don't have to edit your sources.list file.

  Finally, to be able of using the graphical debconf-interface let's
  install Gnome-Apt. After typing 'apt-get install libgnome-perl'
  and 'apt-get install gnome-apt' you are done. With 'apt-get
  install gnome-terminal' you'll get an xterm clone.

  7. Applications

  Before continuing with the 'traditional' applications, there are some
  smaller packages we might like to have installed; this is: an editor,
  a browser and a script that fetches your mail from your POP3 and/or
  IMAP accounts. All those apps are for use on the console.
  For M$ Windoze support you should install Wine. It's still in alpha
  stadium but works okay with lots of apps. Here are the needed commands:

  apt-get install wine
  apt-get install wine-utils
  apt-get install winesetup
  apt-get install wine-doc
  apt-get install wine-wpo2000-glibc-2.1

  apt-get install vim
  apt-get install vim-scripts
  apt-get install vim-gtk

  apt-get install lynx-cur

  * Lynx-cur Configuration

  apt-get install fetchmail-ssl

  With 'apt-get install sudo' you will be able to do tasks that require
  root-rights as user. Eg. type 'sudo apt-get install mozilla-browser'.
  For now, you may surf through the net by typing lynx to the console (with
  support for ssl - the Secure Socket Layer), read your mails with mutt,
  edit your texts with vim ('view' under X), xedit and/or nano.
  And I have installed the GNU MidnightCommander to browse my files (with
  integrated editor) and the 'gpm' mouse-support as well. The following
  applications are going to be installed, too:

  7.1 Internet

  1) Browser:

  + Mozilla Web Browser with mail and news support

  apt-get install mozilla-browser

  * Configuring Mozilla-browser (1)
    Yes to FreeType2 support
  * Configuring Mozilla-browser (2)

  apt-get install mozilla-mailnews

  apt-get install mozilla-psm

  apt-get install mozilla-xmlterm

  apt-get install mozilla-chatzilla

  apt-get install mozilla-js-debugger

  apt-get install mozilla-locale-de-at
  + Galeon - a fast Web Browser

  apt-get install galeon-nautilus
  + bookmarks - The Debian bookmark collection

  apt-get install bookmarks
  + gtkcookie - Editor for cookie files

  apt-get install gtkcookie

  2) Mail:

  + Evolution - The groupware suite (mail, calendar and address book)

  apt-get install evolution

  + pinetracker - Tracks pine uploads.

  apt-get install pine-tracker

  + GPG Keys - GPG Keymanagement frontend

  apt-get install gpgkeys

  + GNOME front-end to GnuPG

  apt-get install gpgp

  + gSmsSend - GNOME/GTK user interface for SmsSend

  apt-get install gsmssend

  + GQ - GTK-based LDAP client

  apt-get install gq

  3) Chat:

  + Gaim - GPL multi-protocol instant messenger client

  apt-get install gaim

  + xchat - IRC client similar to AmIRC

  apt-get install xchat

  4) File Transfer:

  + gFTP - X/GTK+ FTP client

  apt-get install gftp-gtk

  + gtm - GTransferManager

  apt-get install gtm

  5) Firewall:

  + gShield - Firewall script based on iptables

  apt-get install gshield

  * Configuring Iptables
    Yes to init.d script

  + Guarddog - firewall configuration utility for KDE

  apt-get install guarddog

  + gnome-lokkit - basic interactive firewall configuration tool

  apt-get install gnome-lokkit

  + gfcc - GTK firewall control center

  apt-get install gfcc

  6) Tools:

  + 3c5x9utils - Configuration and diagnostic utils for 3Com 5x9 cards

  apt-get install 3c5x9utils

  - 3c5x9setup : EEPROM setup and diagnostic program
  - el3diag    : Diagnostic program

  + fpm - Figaro's Password Manager

  apt-get install fpm

  7.2 Multimedia

  + XMMS - Versatile X audio player

  apt-get install xmms

  apt-cache pkgnames xmms

  apt-get install xmms-sid

  apt-get install xmms-infopipe

  apt-get install xmms-bumpscope

  apt-get install xmms-ladspa

  apt-get install xmms-fmradio

  apt-get install xmms-modplug

  apt-get install xmms-infinity

  apt-get install xmms-jess

  apt-get install xmms-alarm

  apt-get install xmms-iris

  apt-get install xmms-cdread

  apt-get install xmms-lirc

  apt-get install xmms-shell

  apt-get install xmms-qbble

  apt-get install xmms-osd-plugin

  apt-get install xmms-dev

  apt-get install xmms-liveice

  apt-get install xmms-singit

  apt-get install xmms-nas

  apt-get install xmms-status-plugin

  apt-get install xmms-msa

  apt-get install xmms-volnorm

  apt-get install xmms-wmdiscotux

  apt-get install xmms-kjofol

  apt-get install xmms-vorbis

  (E: Sorry, broken packages)

  (apt-get install vorbis-tools)

  apt-get install xmms-flac

  apt-get install xmms-synaesthesia

  apt-get install xmms-crossfade

  apt-get install xmms-goodnight

  + Grip - GNOME-based CD-player/ripper/encoder

  apt-get install grip

  + gnome-media - Gnome Media Utilities

  apt-get install gnome-media

    This package contains:
  - gmix - a mixer
  - gtcd - a cd player
  - vumeter - watch sound output
  - grecord - record sounds

  + Gnapster - GTK client for the Napster online mp3 community

  apt-get install gnapster-gtk

  + Kover - WYSIWYG CD cover printer

  apt-get install kover

  + Kooka - Scanner program for KDE2

  apt-get install kooka

  + Gphoto - Universal application for digital cameras

  apt-get install gphoto

  (apt-get install gphotocoll)

  + GTKsee - GTK-based clone of ACDSee (an image viewer)

  apt-get install gtksee

  + Gallery - a web-based photo album written in php

  (apt-get install apache-ssl)

  apt-get install gallery

  + gv - A PostScript and PDF viewer

  apt-get install gv

  + eog - Eye of Gnome graphics viewer program

  apt-get install eog

  + KBabel - designed to help you to translate fast and consistently.

  apt-get install kbabel

  7.3 Utilities

  + File Menu Applet - A directory navigation GNOME applet

  apt-get install filemenu-applet
  + GMC - Midnight Commander - A powerful file manager. (Gnome version)

  apt-get install gmc

  + gnome-utils - Gnome Utilities

  apt-get install gnome-utils

  This package contains:
  - gcalc - a simple calculator
  - gcharmap - character map viewer.
  - gcolorsel - a color selector
  - gdialog - a Gtk version of the 'dialog' program
  - gdict - dictionary server query and display.
  - gdiskfree - graphical disk free (df) utility.
  - gfloppy - GUI for formatting floppy
  - gfontsel - a font selector
  - gless - a Gtk version of the 'less' pager
  - gsearchtool - a tool for finding and grepping through files
  - gshutdown - reboot or shutdown your machine
  - gtt - a task timer/tracker
  - guname - display 'uname' information about your system
  - gw - display users on the system, like 'w'
  - idetool - an IDE disk viewing tool
  - logview - Log viewing applications.
  - splash/splac - splash screen renderer
  - stripchart - plot system measurements (including applet version)

  + gtop - Graphical TOP variant

  apt-get install gtop

  + xscreensaver - Automatic screensaver for X

  apt-get install xscreensaver-nognome

  + Nautilus - file manager and graphical shell

  apt-get install nautilus-suggested

  + gvidm - Gtk app to quickly and easily change video resolutions

  apt-get install gvidm

  + Gtksu - GTK su(1) frontend (GTK SU)

  apt-get install gtksu

  + gtklp - Frontend for cups

  apt-get install gtklp

  + gtkfontsel - A gtk+ based font selection utility

  apt-get install gtkfontsel

  + gtkfind - Graphical File Finder

  apt-get install gtkfind

  + gtk-theme-switch - Gtk+ theme switching utility

  apt-get install gtk-theme-switch

  + gsfonts - Make Ghostscript fonts available to X11.

  apt-get install gsfonts-other
  apt-get install gsfonts-x11

  + gRun - GTK based Run dialog

  apt-get install grun

  + Goats - A sticky-note type program for Gnome

  apt-get install goats

  + gnome-tasksel - GNOME interface to Debian tasks

  apt-get install gnome-tasksel

  + Gktail - Shows the end of yours logs (like tail -f)

  apt-get install gktail

  + gfontview - A font viewer for Type 1 and TrueType fonts

  apt-get install gfontview

  + gentoo - A fully GUI configurable X file manager using GTK+

  apt-get install gentoo

  + gdict - retrieve definitions from MIT's dictionary server

  (apt-get install gdict)

  7.4 Office

  + AbiWord - WYSIWYG word processor

  apt-get install abiword-gtk

  * Configuring Psfontmgr
    No to PostScript Printer

  (apt-get install abi-plugins, apt-get install abicheck)

  + Gedit - Light-weight text editor

  apt-get install gedit

  + Gnumeric - A GNOME spreadsheet application

  apt-get install gnumeric

  + Gnucash - A personal finance tracking program

  apt-get install gnucash

  * libnet-perl configuration (1)
    No to SNPP hosts [left blank]
  * libnet-perl configuration (2)
    No to POP3 hosts [left blank]
  * libnet-perl configuration (3)
    Yes to SMTP hosts [localhost]
  * libnet-perl configuration (4)
    No to PH hosts [left blank]
  * libnet-perl configuration (5)
    No to default daytime hosts [left blank]
  * libnet-perl configuration (6)
    No to default time hosts [left blank]
  * libnet-perl configuration (7)
  * libnet-perl configuration (8)
    No to FTP proxy firewall [left blank]
  * libnet-perl configuration (9)
    No firewall
  * libnet-perl configuration (10)
    No to FTP passive mode outside network
  * libnet-perl configuration (11)
    No to FTP passive mode regardless of destination

  + GIMP - The GNU Image Manipulation Program

  apt-get install gimp1.2

  apt-get install gimp1.2-nonfree

  + ImageMagick - Image manipulation programs

  apt-get install imagemagick

  + ImPress - WYSIWYG Publishing & Presentation

  apt-get install impress

  + Dia - Diagram editor

  apt-get install dia

  + Kivio - a flowcharting program for the KDE Office Suite

  apt-get install kivio

  + Kontour - a vector graphics tool for the KDE Office Suite

  apt-get install kontour

  + KPresenter - a presentation program for the KDE Office Suite

  apt-get install kpresenter

  + KWord - a word processor for the KDE Office Suite

  apt-get install kword

  + KOrganizer - Personal organizer based on Qt and KDE

  apt-get install korganizer

  + koshell - the KDE Office Suite workspace

  apt-get install koshell

  You should set up all your applications and decide wether you want to
  additionally install the recommended and suggested packages for your
  software. You can use gnome-apt for this. The Ximian Setup Tools can
  be used to fine-tune your system. If you are asked: your distribution
  is Debian Sid - the closest to it is Woody, if Sid can't be chosen.

  At the very end, all I had to do to have a system I would love was:

  One, to install my "e-mail-server". For this purpose all you need to do
  is to configure (or to write from scratch) the /etc/fetchmailrc. You
  can use 'fetchmailconf' if you don't like to edit it by hand. For this
  you must first install it ('apt-get install fetchmailconf'). Besides,
  edit your /etc/exim/exim.conf! - Here is my configuration:

  (2) using smarthost
  other names: none
  relay: none
  relay mail for: none
  root mail to: pablo
  confirm: y

  Two, to load the applications used at startup. Therefore you might
  create an executable file called .xinitrc in your home directory. You
  can find mine here (follow the link). Also, link .xsession to it and
  .Xsession to .xsession. These files are used by your desktop manager.

  Three, you need to login on the GUI (for me this is through the K
  Desktop Manager KDM) and adopt the desktop icons provided by the
  Desktop File Manager (DFM) to your needs. I made links to my prefered
  applocations and used the icons I took from my former OS.

  Well, now you just need to explore your system, send bugs messages to
  the Debian software developers, offer help to all the newbies you come
  in contact with and, of course, try to convince all your friends from
  the advantages of the GNU/Linux operating system and free software in
  general and finally post your questions, discuss things you are worried
  about and create free software applications of your own and/or develop
  existing ones.

  Concluding, I wish you good luck and lot of fun with your new Debian
  GNU/Linux system! Hopefully, this sparse setup description helped in
  both bringing Debian and free software closer to you and opening new
  visions and prespectives for its future...
  8. How to...?
  You won't become a profi just by reading this guide. The best thing to
  learn is to do; that's an old wisdom. To close the gap between theory
  and praxis you may ask your friends to give Debian a try and share
  your experiences with them. They might have an answer to your
  problems quicker than you - vice versa.
  Besides, it's always good to read more guides or to seek for a
  solution to your problem on the internet. To facilitate this work, I'm
  going to give you some web-ressources in this very last section.
  (Okay, you _should_ read the licences at the end as well to become
  a fully aware member of the community! ;-))
  This site provides a good start if you want to know more about the
  Debian Project's history, its actual and its past versions, its policy in
  general etc. You'll also find a link to the Debian FAQ there.
  The Linux Documentation Project (LDP):
  One main advantage in comparison with other OSes are its manuals.
  There are no hidden functions as with M$FT Windoze and all the
  solicitated information can be obtained for free. That made GNU/Linux
  grow (beside the correct policy of the GNU project and the Free
  Software Foundation as a whole).
  In most of the cases, you won't need to search on
  for your problem. All the relevant HOWTO's, Guides and FAQ's can be
  find at the LDP. Most of them will be translated into your mother tongue
  - if not: help them (or rather us!) with translation. Also printed books can
  be found on their site.

  For more infos have a look at Resources at SSC. Specialized Systems
  Consultants, Inc. (SSC) is the publisher of the Linux Journal and the
  Linux Gazette, which is available as a Debian package. The URI to their
  main web site is:

  "Introducing Linux Journal, the premier Linux magazine, in 1993 set the
  groundwork for what SSC is best known for; their devoted commitment to the
  Linux operating system and its vast community of users and developers."

  Linux Resources:
  Linux Help Desk:
  That's the link to the Linux Journal online resources:
  "It may seem obvious to mention, but be sure to look through these pages
  thoroughly if you're trying to find an answer to a Linux question -- we're
  taking every effort to make these pages the most complete set of pointers to
  Linux resources on the Web."

  Linux Journal: The Monthly Magazine of the Linux Community has its site at and the Official Linux Gazette Site is at (with a whole archive; published since 1996!)
  "Linux Gazette, a member of the Linux Documentation Project, is an on-line
  WWW publication dedicated to two simple ideas: making Linux just a little
  more fun and sharing ideas and discoveries."

  Linux Gazette WWW & FTP Mirror Sites:
  This site loads very slowly. But after finding your prefered mirror you won't
  have to wait any longer. Eg. for my residence country (AT) I might chose
  There are also Foreign Language Translations, but you won't have problems with
  reading in English when you understood everything in this HOWTO until here. :-) "is a volunteer driven Linux magazine. It is truly international
  and free."
  Linux Online Inc. can be reached at
  Kernel Cousin Debian:

  GNU's Not Unix! --
  "The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop a complete Unix-like operating
  system which is free software: the GNU system."

  Linux Knoppix:
  "Full-featured Linux distribution that boots from a CD. Includes the latest
  version of KDE and OpenOffice. Can be used to work from Linux on PCs without
  actually installing it, so it is ideal for demonstrations of Linux. Based on
  Debian." (from:

  This should be enough links to start with. If you really shouldn't find your
  favourite stations on the web within hours (or maybe days, but I'm an
  optimist!), then visit my website (see above) or mail me. But remember: If you
  think you'll need a (commercial) support or aren't prepared to invest some
  leissure time (just as I did by writing this mini-Howto) no one of us can help
  you! At least, I cannot and don't want to replace a commercial support!

  Last not least come the links to the terms of the copyleft!

  9. GNU Free Documentation License

  The latest version of the GNU Free Documentation License may be obtained at

  10. GNU General Public Licence

  The latest version of the GNU General Public License may be obtained at

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
    Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

  It is obvious that the terms "program" and "free software" above have to be
  replaced by "document" and "free documentation" regarding this HOWTO.

  My family, friends and relatives hereby disclaim all copyright interest in
  this document written by myself, Pablo Hoertner. (See the statement above.)

  12. Terms of distribution

  Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any
  medium, provided this notice is preserved.

Copyright © 2002 by Pablo Hoertner. All rights reserved.
Last changes: Wednesday, October 23, 2002